Hummingbirds and Swifts
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The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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Chantler, P. 2000. Swifts: A Guide to the Swifts and Treeswifts of the World. 2nd ed. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Chubb, A. L. 2004. Nuclear corroboration of DNA-DNA hybridization in deep phylogenies of hummingbirds, swifts, and passerines: The phylogenetic utility of ZENK (ii). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30 (1): 128-139.
Cracraft, J., F. Keith Barker, M. J. Braun, J. Harshman, G. Dyke, J. Feinstein, S. Stanley, A. Cibois, P. Schikler, P. Beresford, J. García-Moreno, M. D. Sorenson, T. Yuri, and D. P. Mindell. 2004. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Modern Birds (Neornithes): Toward an Avian Tree of Life. Pp 468-489 in Cracraft, J. and M. J. Donoghue (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.
Johansson, U. S., Parsons, T. J., Irestedt, M. and Ericson, P. G. P. 2001. Clades within the "higher land birds", evaluated by nuclear DNA sequences. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 39: 37-51.
Lee, P. L. M., D. H. Clayton, R. Griffiths, and R. D. M. Page. 1996. Does behavior reflect phylogeny in swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae)? A test using cytochrome b mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93 (14): 7091-7096.
Mayr, G. 2002. Osteological evidence for paraphyly of the avian order Caprimulgiformes (nightjars and allies). Journal Fur Ornithologie 143 (1): 82-97.
Mayr, G. 2003. Phylogeny of early Tertiary swifts and hummingbirds. Auk 120 (1): 145-151.
Price, J. J., K. P. Johnson, and D. H. Clayton. 2004. The evolution of echolocation in swiftlets. Journal of Avian Biology 35 (2): 135-143.
Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1990. Swifts and Hummingbirds. Pages 391-401 in: Phylogeny and classification of birds: a study in molecular evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven.
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- First online 14 December 2005
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2005. Apodiformes. Hummingbirds and Swifts. Version 14 December 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Apodiformes/26391/2005.12.14 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/