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Tube case makers

Ralph W. Holzenthal, Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer
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taxon links [up-->]Plenitentoria [up-->]Brevitentoria extinct icon extinct icon extinct icon extinct icon extinct icon Phylogenetic position of group is uncertainPhylogenetic position of group is uncertainPhylogenetic position of group is uncertainPhylogenetic position of group is uncertainPhylogenetic position of group is uncertain[down<--]Trichoptera Interpreting the tree
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The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Tree in part from Holzenthal et al. (2007), and the Trichoptera World Checklist (Morse 2010).
Containing group: Trichoptera


Integripalpia are the most speciose trichopteran suborder with xxx species, according to the Trichoptera World Checklist (Morse, 2010).  Integripalpia are common, and cosmopolitan.   Larvae construct tubular cases, made from a wide variety of materials, and in a wide variety of architechture. The larva extends its head and legs out the anterior end of the case as it feeds and crawls on the substrate. To increase the size of the case, they simply extend or add to the anterior end with each larval instar, eventually pupating inside the slightly modified larval case. Case-making larvae are primarily detritivores. They feed by shredding and ingesting dead leaves and other plant parts largely of riparian origin. Predation is also common among the case-makers, but herbivory on living plants is less common. Other casemakers feed by scraping the diatoms, other algae, and fine detritus that makes up the periphyton or biofilm. A very few are filterers or snag drifting prey.

Weaver (1984) restricted the concept of Integripalpia to include only the Limnephiloidea of Ross, and this is the sense in which it is used here.


Synapomorphies of the Integripalpia (from Weaver, 1984)

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The monophyly of Integripalpia has never been seriously questioned.  Ross (1956) identified Integripalpia based on a progression of case making behaviors.  Weaver (1984), in the first cladistic analysis based on morphology, recovered Integripalpia as monophyletic, as did subsequent morphological analyses (Frania and Wiggins, 1997; Ivanov, 2002).  All combined molecular analyses have recovered Integripalpia (Kjer et al., 2001; 2002; Holzenthal et al. 2007), as have partitioned analyses from mitochondrial data (Kjer et al., 2001).

Other Names for Integripalpia


Holzenthal R.W., Blahnik, R.J., Kjer K.M and Prather, A.L. 2007. An update on the phylogeny of Caddisflies (Trichoptera). Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera. Bueno-Soria, R. Barba-Alvearz and B. Armitage (Eds). pp. 143-153. The Caddis Press.

Frania, H. E., & G. B. Wiggins. 1997. Analysis of morphological and behavioural evidence for the phylogeny and higher classification of Trichoptera (Insecta). Pages 67 in Life Sciences Contributions Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

Ivanov, V. D. 2002. Contribution to the Trichoptera phylogeny: new family tree with considerations of Trichoptera-Lepidoptera relations. Nova Supplementa Entomologica (Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Trichoptera) 15: 277-292.

Kjer, K. M., R. J. Blahnik, & R. W. Holzenthal. 2001. Phylogeny of Trichoptera (caddisflies): characterization of signal and noise within multiple datasets. Systematic Biology 50: 781-816.

Kjer, K. M., R. J. Blahnik, and R. W. Holzenthal. 2002. Phylogeny of Caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zoologica Scripta 31(1): 83-91.

Morse, J.C. (ed.) 2010. Trichoptera World Checklist. http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm

Ross, H.H. (1956) Evolution and Classification of the Mountain Caddisflies. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 213 pp.

Weaver, J.S., III. 1984. The evolution and classification of Trichoptera, Part 1: the groundplan of Trichoptera. Pages 413-419 in J.C. Morse (editor). Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

Weaver, J.S. III & J.C. Morse. 1986. Evolution of feeding and case-making behavior in Trichoptera. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 5(2): 150-158.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Phylloicus ornatus
Location Guanacaste, Costa Rica
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 1997 David Funk
Scientific Name Marilia nobsca
Location Brewster Co., Texas, USA
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Life Cycle Stage larvae
Copyright © 1997 James C. Hodges, Jr.
About This Page

Ralph W. Holzenthal
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Roger J. Blahnik
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Aysha Prather
Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Karl Kjer
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Ralph W. Holzenthal at , Aysha Prather at , and Karl Kjer at

Page: Tree of Life Integripalpia. Tube case makers. Authored by Ralph W. Holzenthal, Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Holzenthal, Ralph W., Roger J. Blahnik, Aysha Prather, and Karl Kjer. 2010. Integripalpia. Tube case makers. Version 20 July 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Integripalpia/14551/2010.07.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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