- Ursus americanus (American Black Bear)
- Ursus arctos (Brown Bear)
- Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear)
- Ursus thibetanus (Asiatic Black Bear)
- Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Giant Panda)
- Helarctos malayanus (Sun Bear)
- Melursus ursinus (Sloth Bear)
- Tremarctos ornatus (Spectacled Bear)
Christiansen, P. 2007. Evolutionary implications of bite mechanics and feeding ecology in bears. Journal of Zoology 272(4):423-443.
Krause, J, Unger, T, Nocon, A, Malaspinas, AS, Kolokotronis, SO, Stiller, M, Soibelzon, L, Spriggs, H, Dear, PH, Briggs, AW, Bray, SCE, O'Brien, SJ, Rabeder, G, Matheus, P, Cooper, A, Slatkin, M, Paabo, S, Hofreiter, M. 2008. Mitochondrial genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8:220.
Nakagome, S, Pecon-Slattery, J, Masuda, R. 2008. Unequal rates of Y chromosome gene divergence during speciation of the family Ursidae. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25 (7): 1344-1356.
Pages, M, Calvignac, S, Klein, C, Paris, M, Hughes, S, Hanni, C. 2008. Combined analysis of fourteen nuclear genes refines the Ursidae phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 (1): 73-83.
Talbot SL, Shields, GF. 1996. A phylogeny of the bears (ursidae) inferred from complete sequences of three mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 5:567-575.
Waits, LP, Sullivan, J, O'Brien, SJ, Ward, RH. 1999. Rapid radiation events in the family Ursidae indicated by likelihood phylogenetic estimation from multiple fragments of mtDNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13(1):82-92.
Yu, L, Li, YW, Ryder, OA,Zhang, Y-P. 2007. 2004. Phylogeny of the bears (Ursidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32(2):480-494.
Yu, L, Li, YW, Ryder, OA, Zhang, Y-P. 2007. Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:198.
Zhang YP, Ryder OA. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of bears (the ursidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 3:351-359.
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- First online 12 October 2008
- Content changed 12 October 2008
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2008. Ursidae. Bears. Version 12 October 2008 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Ursidae/16015/2008.10.12 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/