Under Construction


Jeff Skevington
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taxon links [up-->]Jassidophaga [up-->]Protoverrallia succinia [up-->]Verrallia [up-->]Chalarus extinct icon Monophyly Uncertain[down<--]Pipunculidae Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Pipunculidae


This subfamily is represented by 72 valid extant species and four extinct species.


These flies are immediately recognizable from other pipunculids by having the backs of their heads flattened (rounded in all other pipunculids). They also have strong bristles on their occiput and thorax. The genus Chalarus includes the smallest pipunculids, some only 4 mm long. Taxonomy of the group is very poorly studied. Revision of all genera in all regions is needed. Chalarus is particularly poorly known, with no described species in North America or Australia, despite considerable diversity in these regions.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

Both molecular and morphological evidence strongly support the hypothesis that this is the basal lineage of pipunculids (Rafael and De Meyer, 1992; Skevington and Yeates, 2000). Chalarus is the most plesiomorphic genus. The monophyly of Jassidophaga has often been questioned and Jassidophaga has been treated as part of Verrallia by some authors.


Rafael, J. A., and M. De Meyer. 1992. Generic classification of the family Pipunculidae (Diptera): a cladistic analysis. Journal of Natural History 26:637-658.

Skevington, J. H., and D. K. Yeates. 2000. Phylogeny of the Syrphoidea (Diptera) inferred from mtDNA sequences and morphology with particular reference to classification of the Pipunculidae (Diptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 16:212-224.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Jassidophaga
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Jeff Skevington
Sex Male
Life Cycle Stage adult
Copyright © Steve Marshall
About This Page

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Jeff Skevington at

Page: Tree of Life Chalarinae. Authored by Jeff Skevington. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Skevington, Jeff. 2005. Chalarinae. Version 02 November 2005 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Chalarinae/54640/2005.11.02 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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