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CharacteristicsCharacters of the Sphecomyrminae basically conform to a primitive condition within ants (Bolton 2003). In contrast to all other ants (except for the Armaniinae), sphecomyrmines had short antennal scapes.
Bolton (2003) divides the subfamily into two tribes, which differ in characters of the mandible, clypeus, ocelli, antennae, petiole, and abdominal segment III.
Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. 222 pp. Cambridge, Mass.
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalog of the Ants of the World. 504 pp. Cambridge, Mass.
Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
Dlussky, G. M. 1975. Semeistvo Formicidae. Pp. 114-122 in: Rasnitsyn, A. P. Vysshie Pereponchatokrylye Mezozoya. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta 147: 134 pp. [Russian]
Dlussky, G. M. 1983. Novoe semeistvo pozdnemelovykh pereponchatokrylykh - "promezhutochnoe zveno" mezhdu murav'yami i skolioidami. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1983 (No. 3): 65-78. [Russian]
Dlussky, G. M. 1987. Novye Formicoidea pozdnego mela. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1987 (No. 1): 131-135. [Russian]
Dlussky, G. M. 1996. Ants from Burmese Amber. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1996 (No. 3): 83-89. [Russian]
Dlussky, G. M. 1999. Pervaya nakhodka formikoidov v nizhnemelovykh otlozheniyakh severnogo polyshariya. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal 1999 (No. 3): 62-66. [Russian]
Dlussky, G. M. and E. B. Fedoseeva. 1988. Proiskhozhdenie i rannie etapy evolyutsii murav'ev. Pp. 70-144 in: Ponomarenko, A. G. Melovoi Biotsenoticheskii Krizis i Evolyutsiya Nasekomykh: 228 pp. Moskva. [Russian]
Grimaldi, D., D. Agosti, and J. M. Carpenter. 1997. New and rediscovered primitive ants in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships. American Museum Novitates 3208: 1-43.
Hölldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. 732 pp. Harvard University Press.
Wheeler, G. C. and J. Wheeler. 1972. The subfamilies of Formicidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 7: 1-108.
Wilson, E. O. 1987. The earliest known ants: an analysis of the Cretaceous species and an inference regarding their social organization. Paleobiology 13: 44-53.
Wilson, E. O., F. M. Carpenter, and W. L. Brown, Jr. 1967. The first Mesozoic ants, with the description of a new subfamily. Psyche 74: 1-19.
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- First online 20 March 2004
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2004. Sphecomyrminae. Version 20 March 2004 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Sphecomyrminae/22198/2004.03.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/