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CharacteristicsThe Proceratiinae are characterized by the following apomorphy (Bolton 2003):
- Antennal sockets mostly to entirely exposed, close to anterior margin of head
Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1958. Contributions toward a reclassification of the Formicidae. 2. Tribe Ectatommini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 118: 175-362.
De Andrade, M. L., and C. Baroni Urbani. 2003. The Baltic amber ant genus Bradoponera (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with description of two new species and reassessment of the Proceratiini genera. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110 (4): 913-938.
Hölldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kugler, C. 1991. Stings of ants of the tribe Ectatommini. Insecta Mundi 5: 153-166.
Lattke, J. E. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of ectatommine ants. Entomologica Scandinavica 25: 105-119.
Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1976. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 74: 1-108.
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- First online 20 March 2004
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2004. Proceratiinae. Version 20 March 2004 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Proceratiinae/22219/2004.03.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/