This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
CharacteristicsThe Ponerinae are characterized by the following apomorphies (Bolton 2003):
- Torulus completely fused to frontal lobe
- Outer borders of frontal lobes form simple short semicircles or blunt triangles and in full-face view have a distinctly pinched-in appearance posteriorly
Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bolton, B. 2003. Synopsis and Classification of Formicidae. 370 pp. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, Vol. 71. Gainesville, FL.
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1973. A comparison of the Hylean and Congo-West African rain forest ant faunas. Pp 161-185 in: Meggers, B. J., E. S. Ayensu, and W. D. Duckworth (eds). Tropical Forest Ecosystems in Africa and South America: a Comparative Review: 350 pp. Washington, D. C.
Hölldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wheeler, G. C. & Wheeler, J. 1976. Ant larvae: review and synthesis. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington 74: 1-108.
About This Page
Page copyright © 2004
Page: Tree of Life Ponerinae. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 20 March 2004
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2004. Ponerinae. Version 20 March 2004 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Ponerinae/22215/2004.03.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/